adjective is a word that describes a person(s), place(s), or thing(s).
Within a sentence, an adjective usually describes a noun.
In Koiné Greek, adjectives generally match the noun they describe in gender and number. Attributive adjectives specifically must also match the noun they describe in case. Any Greek adjective can take the form of all three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives show these various forms by using the same kinds of word endings as nouns. Greek adjectives are listed in a lexicon according to the masculine nominative singular form.
Adjectives change form according to the base form of the adjective itself, NOT the base form of the noun it is describing. For example, the feminine dative singular form of the adjective πάς is always πάςῃ. The form will not change when describing any feminine dative noun. This remains true regardless of the kind of feminine dative word ending that appears on the noun.
Most adjectives in Koiné Greek use one of the following sets of word endings. However, there are more sets of word endings for adjectives in Greek than are listed here. See adjective_paradigms for more. See especially Master Table 1 and Master Table 2 Master Tables.
In the above example the adjectives πάςῃ and πνευματικῇ are in feminine singular form. They agree with the noun εὐλογιᾳ in gender and number. These adjectives are both attributive. Therefore, they also agree in case.
The adjective always appears in the form that represents the true gender of the noun. The above example is a statement of Jesus (a man). The pronoun ἐγώ (“I”) is in masculine singular form. Therefore, any adjective describing ἐγώ must also appear in masculine singular form. In this example, the adjective ποίμην appears to be feminine because it ends with “ην”. However, the adjective ποίμην uses a different set of word endings than listed above. In this example, both ποιμήν and καλός are nominative masculine singular.
ascriptive adjective is an adjective that functions as an attributive adjective and is NOT paired with the definite article.
The noun being described by an ascriptive adjective may or may not be paired with the definite article.
|not||commandment||new||I write||to you||but||commandment||old|
restrictive adjective is an adjective that functions as an attributive adjective and IS paired with the definite article
The noun being described by a restrictive adjective may or may not be paired with the definite article but is always a definite noun.
|And||the||on day||the||third||wedding||there was|
Describes a noun¶
The most common use of adjectives is to describe a noun. There are two kinds of adjectives that function in this way, attributive adjectives and predicative adjectives.
In almost all instances, an
attributive adjective immediately follows the noun that it
describes and has the same form in gender, number, and definiteness.
Thus, if the noun is masculine, the adjective is also masculine. If the noun is singular, the adjective is
also singular. If the noun is definite, the adjective is also definite; and so on.
In Koiné Greek, an
attributive adjective may come either before or after the noun it describes.
Attributive adjectives are usually paired with the definite article, but not always.
As state above, attributive adjectives must agree with the noun they describe in gender, case, and number.
Predicative adjectives are adjectives that describe nouns using a linking verb.
Often the linking verb is not present in the Hebrew text and must be supplied when translating into English.
Like attributive adjectives, a predicative adjective usually has the same form as the noun it
describes in both gender and number. Unlike attributive adjectives, however, a predicative
adjective can be indefinite even if it describes a definite noun.
Adjectives that function as predicative adjectives are classified as nouns (“NP”) in the UGNT.
|Blessed||is the||man||who||he endures||a trial|
nominal adjective is an adjective that itself functions as a noun in the sentence rather than describing a noun.
When an adjective itself functions as a noun in a sentence, the adjective is describing some unnamed person or object. It is NOT describing some other noun in the sentence. Therefore, there is no other noun with which the adjective can agree in gender, case, or number. When an adjective functions as a noun, its case word ending is determined by how the word functions within the sentence. Its gender and number word ending is determined by the actual unnamed person or object to which the adjective refers. In Koiné Greek, nominal adjectives are often paired with the definite article, but not always.
Adjectives that function as nominal adjectives are classified as nouns (“NS”) in the UGNT.
|as||it has been written||the||but||righteous [man/person]||by||faith||he will live|
adverbial adjective is an adjective that functions as an adverb,
meaning that it describes a verb instead of a noun.
When an adjective is used as an adverb, usually the adjective will have the neuter accusative (or sometimes neuter dative) word ending. The most common of these adjectives that used adverbs include: βραχύ (“short”), ἲδιον (“one’s own”), μίκρον (“small”), ὀλίγον (“little”), μόνον (“alone”), πολύ (“many”), πρῶτον (“first”), ὕστερον “(second”).
Other uses of adjectives¶
adjectives that compare two or more items¶
comparative adjective expresses a comparison between two or more items.
In Koiné Greek, a comparative adjective is often formed by adding a specific kind of word ending to the base form of that adjective. These comparative adjective word endings differ according to gender: -τερος (masculine), -τερα (feminine), or -τερον (neuter).
(Some irregular adjectives take the suffixes -(ι)ων or -ον instead.)
Some adjectives use the comparative word ending to indicate a superlative adjective instead. You must always be observant of the context and take it into account when translating an adjective with a comparative word ending.
|not||he is||a slave||greater||than||master||his|
adjectives with stronger meaning¶
intensive adjective has a stronger degree of meaning than a typical adjective.
Sometime both/either comparative and/or superlative word endings can be used to express an intensive meaning to that particular adjective rather than either a comparative meaning or a superlative meaning.
|and||it is gathered||to||him||crowd||very large|
adjectives with strongest meaning¶
superlative adjective has a meaning strengthened to its greatest degree.
In Koiné Greek, a comparative adjective is often formed by adding a specific kind of word ending to the base form of that adjective. These comparative adjective word endings differ according to gender: -τατος (masculine), -τατη (feminine), and -τατον (neuter), OR -ιστος (masculine), -ιστη (feminine), and -ιστον (neuter).
Some adjectives use the superlative word ending to indicate a comparative adjective instead. You must always be observant of the context and take it into account when translating an adjective with a comparative word ending.
|I||for||I am||the||least||of the||apostles|
I am the good shepherd…